Depends on the program – many programs will require participation in medical research, which often involves writing reports with a team of researchers and presenting at conferences or publishing in medical journals. Some programs are more focused on clinical practice, but might not train people much beyond the GP/family doctor level as a result.
No. Medical school grants an MD (professional degree), not a PhD (doctorate), and does not require original work. Just passing exams.
I’m pretty sure you do something of that nature. You have this huge research lab project and have to write a big paper/book to report your findings